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一、经济学人杂志双语文章摘要

这次疫情是百年一遇的事件。已有7000多万人感染新冠病毒,可能有五亿或更多人被感染却从未被确诊。记录在案的死亡数字是160万,还有数十万没有被正式记录。成百上千万幸存者正经受“新冠长期症状”,变得疲惫虚弱。世界经济产出比本应有的水平减少了至少7%,下滑幅度是二战以来之最。从所有这些苦难的灰烬中会产生一种意识——日子不是攒着劲儿过的,而是要过好每一天。

二、经济学人杂志双语文章中英对照翻译

The plague year 瘟疫年

2020.12


Covid-19 in 2020 【首文】2020年的新冠疫情
This will be remembered as a moment when everything changed
这一年一切都变了,它将被铭记 

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WARREN HARDING built a campaign for the presidential election in 1920 around his new word “normalcy”. It was an appeal to Americans’ supposed urge to forget the horrors of the first world war and the Spanish flu and turn back to the certainties of the Golden Age. And yet, instead of embracing Harding’s normalcy, the Roaring Twenties became a ferment of forward-looking, risk-taking social, industrial and artistic novelty.
沃伦·哈定(Warren Harding)在1920年围绕一个新词“normalcy”(常态)组织自己的总统竞选。这是为了迎合当时所认为的美国人心中的渴求——忘记第一次世界大战和西班牙流感的恐怖,回归“黄金时代”的安定。然而,“咆哮的20年代”非但没有走入哈定的“常态”,反而酝酿出了一系列进取而冒险的社会、工业和艺术上的创新。
War had something to do with the Jazz Age’s lack of inhibition. So did the flu pandemic, which killed six times as many Americans and left survivors with an appetite to live the 1920s at speed. That spirit will also animate the 2020s. The sheer scale of the suffering from covid-19, the injustices and dangers the pandemic has revealed, and the promise of innovation mean that it will be remembered as the year when everything changed.
这一“爵士时代”之所以无所禁忌,与战争有一些关系。当然还有西班牙流感,它在美国造成的死亡人数是一战的六倍,幸存者因而想争分夺秒地度过1920年代。这种精神也将激活2020年代。新冠疫情破坏范围之大、昭显的不公与危险,以及它带来的创新的希望,都意味着2020年将作为改变一切的一年而被铭记。
The pandemic has been a once-in-a-century event. SARS-CoV-2 has been found in over 70m people and possibly infected another 500m or more who were never diagnosed. It has caused 1.6m recorded deaths; many hundreds of thousands have gone unrecorded. Millions of survivors are living with the exhaustion and infirmities of “long covid”. World economic output is at least 7% lower than it would otherwise have been, the biggest slump since the second world war. Out of the ashes of all that suffering will emerge the sense that life is not to be hoarded, but lived.
这次疫情是百年一遇的事件。已有7000多万人感染新冠病毒,可能有五亿或更多人被感染却从未被确诊。记录在案的死亡数字是160万,还有数十万没有被正式记录。成百上千万幸存者正经受“新冠长期症状”,变得疲惫虚弱。世界经济产出比本应有的水平减少了至少7%,下滑幅度是二战以来之最。从所有这些苦难的灰烬中会产生一种意识——日子不是攒着劲儿过的,而是要过好每一天。
Another reason to expect change—or, at least, to wish for it—is that covid-19 has served as a warning. The 80bn animals slaughtered for food and fur each year are Petri dishes for the viruses and bacteria that evolve into a lethal human pathogen every decade or so. This year the bill came due and it was astronomical. The clear blue skies that appeared as the economy went into lockdown were a powerful symbol of how covid-19 is a fast-moving crisis within a slow-moving one that it in some ways resembles. Like the pandemic, climate change is impervious to populist denials, global in the disruption it causes and will be far more costly to deal with in the future if it is neglected now.
预计会有(或至少希望能有)改变的另一个理由是疫情给了一个警告。每年为食用和获取毛皮而宰杀的800亿头动物是病毒和细菌的培养皿,而这些病毒细菌每十年左右就会演化出一种致命的人类病原体。这份账单今年到期支付,金额是个天文数字。经济体停摆时出现的澄澈蓝天是一个强有力的表征,显示疫情是一场慢性危机中的一次急症,而两者在某些方面有相似之处。无论民粹分子如何否认,气候变化和新冠疫情一样会带来全球性的破坏,而如果现在忽视它,日后为应对它要付出高得多的代价。
And a third reason to expect change is that the pandemic has highlighted injustice. Children have fallen behind in their lessons—and too often gone hungry. School leavers and graduates have once again seen their prospects recede. People of all ages have endured loneliness or violence at home. Migrant workers have been cast adrift, or sent back to their villages, taking the disease with them. The suffering has been skewed by race. A 40-year-old Hispanic-American is 12 times more likely to die from covid-19 than a white American of the same age. In S?o Paulo black Brazilians under 20 are twice as likely to die as whites.
改变可期的第三个原因是疫情突显了不公。有学童落下学业,还常常挨饿。离校生和毕业生再次感到前景黯淡。各种年龄段都有人在家中忍受孤独或暴力。外来劳工被迫四处漂泊或被遣送回乡,把疫病也一同带去。有些种族遭受的苦难更加深重。40岁西裔美国人死于新冠病毒的可能性是同龄美国白人的12倍。在圣保罗,20岁以下巴西黑人的新冠死亡率是白人的两倍。
As the world has adapted some of these iniquities have got worse. Studies suggest that about 60% of jobs in America paying over $100,000 can be done from home, compared with 10% of jobs paying under $40,000. As unemployment has soared this year, the MSCI index of world stockmarkets has risen by 11%. In the worst case, the UN reckons, the pandemic could force over 200m people into extreme poverty. Their plight will be exacerbated by authoritarians and would-be tyrants who have exploited the virus to tighten their stranglehold on power.
随着世界调整应对危机,这些不公平现象中有一些变得更加严重。研究显示,在美国,年薪十万美元以上的工作约60%可以在家远程完成,而年薪低于四万美元的工作只有10%可以这么做。今年失业率飙升,跟踪全球股市的MSCI指数反而上涨了11%。据联合国估计,在最坏的情况下,疫情可能迫使超过两亿人陷入极端贫困。他们的困境还将因为威权统治者和蠢蠢欲动的暴君利用新冠病毒加强权力控制而加剧。 Perhaps that is why pandemics have led to social upheaval in the past. The IMF looked at 133 countries in 2001-18 and found that unrest surged about 14 months after the onset of disease, peaking after 24 months. The more unequal a society, the more upheaval. Indeed, the fund warns of a vicious circle in which protest further increases hardship which, in turn, feeds protest.
这可能就是为什么在过去大流行病导致了社会动荡。国际货币基金组织(IMF)在2001年至2018年考察了133个国家,发现在疾病发生后的第14个月左右动乱飙升,24个月后达到顶峰。社会越不平等,动乱就越频繁。实际上,IMF警告了一种恶性循环:抗争加重苦难,苦难继而又加剧抗争。
Fortunately, covid-19 has not just brought about the need for change, it also points a way forward. That is partly because it has served as an engine of innovation. Under lockdown, e-commerce as a share of American retail sales increased as much in eight weeks as it had in the previous five years. As people worked from home, travel on the New York subway fell by over 90%. Almost overnight, businesses like this newspaper began to be run from spare rooms and kitchen tables—an experiment that would otherwise have taken years to unfold, if ever.
幸运的是,新冠疫情不仅带来了改变的需要,还指明了前进的方向。这一定程度上是因为它推动了创新。封城之下,电商占美国零售额的比例在八周内的增幅就等于之前五年的变化。由于人们在家工作,纽约地铁的出行量下降超过90%。几乎在一夜之间,像本刊这样的企业开始变成在家中客房和餐桌上运营——要是没有疫情,这种实验就算真会发生,也要经过很多年。
This disruption is in its infancy. The pandemic is proof that change is possible even in conservative industries like health care. Fuelled by cheap capital and new technology, including artificial intelligence and, possibly, quantum computing, innovation will burn through industry after industry. For example, costs at American colleges and universities have increased almost five times faster than consumer prices in the past 40 years, even as teaching has barely changed, making it tempting to disrupters. Further technological progress in renewable sources of energy, smart grids and battery storage are all vital steps on the path to replacing fossil fuels.
这场颠覆还处于起步阶段。疫情证明了即使是在医疗保健等保守的行业,改变也是可能的。在廉价的资本以及人工智能——或许还有量子计算——等新技术的推动下,创新的火焰将蔓延至一个又一个行业。例如,在过去40年里,美国高校在教学上几乎没有任何变化,而学费的增速却是消费价格增速的近五倍,这让它成为颠覆者的诱人目标。可再生能源、智能电网和电池储能方面的技术进步都是取代化石燃料的道路上的关键进展。
The coronavirus has also revealed something profound about the way societies should treat knowledge. Consider how Chinese scientists sequenced the genome of SARS-CoV-2 within weeks and shared it with the world. The new vaccines that resulted are just one stop in the light-speed progress that has elucidated where the virus came from, whom it affects, how it kills, and what might treat it.
新冠病毒还揭示出有关社会该如何对待知识的一些深刻道理。想想中国的科学家是怎样在几周内就对病毒做了基因组测序并与全世界分享的。由此产生的新疫苗只是光速进展中的一站,这些进展解释了病毒来源、影响对象、致命原理以及可能的治疗方法。
It is a remarkable demonstration of what science can achieve. At a time when conspiracies run wild, this research stands as a rebuke to the know-nothings and zealots in dictatorships and democracies who behave as if the evidence for a claim is as nothing next to the identity of the person asserting it.
这是对科学所能取得的成果的杰出示范。在阴谋论甚嚣尘上之际,这样的研究有力驳斥了独裁和民主国家中那些对待观点不看证据只看言者身份的无知者与狂热分子。
And the pandemic has led to a burst of innovative government. Those which can afford it—and some, like Brazil’s, that cannot—have suppressed inequality by spending over $10trn on covid-19, three times more in real terms than in the financial crisis. That will dramatically reset citizen’s expectations about what governments can do for them.
疫情引发了一连串政府创新治理。那些能承担创新开支的政府以及部分负担不起的政府(如巴西)已动用超过10万亿美元抗疫以抑制不平等现象,投入的资金按实值计算是金融危机时的三倍。这将极大地改变公民对政府能为他们做什么的期望。
Many people under lockdown have asked themselves what matters most in life. Governments should take that as their inspiration, focusing on policies that promote individual dignity, self-reliance and civic pride. They should recast welfare and education and take on concentrations of entrenched power so as to open up new thresholds for their citizens. Something good can come from the misery of the plague year. It should include a new social contract fit for the 21st century.
在封城停摆的日子里,许多人都自问生命中最重要的是什么。各国政府应从中获得启发,把政策重点放在促进个人尊严、自立自主和公民自豪感上。它们应重塑福利和教育政策,挑战根深蒂固且集中的权力,以求为其公民开辟新的起点。瘟疫之年的苦难可以带来好的转变。其中应该包括适合21世纪的新社会契约

Economist:The plague year 瘟疫年-经济学人杂志双语-合同翻译特点

三、翻译园地-合同翻译

英语合同翻译是一项艰巨的任务。需要克服语言障碍,熟悉合同中描述的事项。它需要专业、语言和有经验的人员来承担。以下是合同翻译中的一些难点和对策。
1.专业领域多。
合同是典型的法律文书,适用于各行各业。双方或合同各方通过合同约定相关方的责任和义务,以促进项目的顺利实施。合同往往涉及多个专业,如涉及电工、机械、土木、通信、继电保护、高压、水利工程等的电气工程合同。如果译员完全没有专业经验或概念,该如何选择专业术语?单词基本上是一词多义。因此,我们必须选择有经验的语言专业人员或精通语言的专业技术人员来做翻译,这样翻译的质量才能得到保证。
2.翻译时间短
签署一个项目通常是与时间赛跑的关键商业环节,如果你迟到了,你可能会面临失去合同的风险。但是,合同翻译的质量能打折扣吗?当然不是?怎么解决?最好的选择是委托专业的翻译机构,保证翻译速度和质量,从而尽快推动商务签约。
3.译文一致性难题
客户往往很难在短时间内独立完成几十万或几十万字的英文合同翻译。即使能够完成,也更难保证译文的统一性。


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