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一、经济学人杂志双语文章摘要

达尔文把全球化主要诠释为“世界不同地区之间经济上的连通性”。这个定义合理但有局限,它忽略了民族主义和社会主义等意识形态在19世纪的崛起,它们想要解释世界各地之间的社会关系。地质学和古生物学等新兴科学也有同样广阔的研究领域。与此同时,“解锁”世界是个生动的比喻,但暗示了一个平稳的甚至是不可避免的过程。而在现实中,世界各地的大门不只是被解锁的,而常常是被踢开的。达尔文明白这一点,他强调了地缘政治和帝国主义的影响,而不仅仅是自由贸易这个抽象概念。但他或许本可以更生动地描绘出这些足印。

二、经济学人杂志双语文章中英对照翻译

Ports in a storm 风暴中的港口

2020.12


Globalisation 全球化
The great port cities were the keys that opened up the world
伟大的港口城市是打开世界的钥匙【《解锁世界》书评】

金融翻译术语特点


IN LIVERPOOL, A French observer marvelled in 1907, “one feels one is in contact with America, Australia, west Africa, the Far East, at the same time as with Germany and France. There one is at the commercial centre of the world.”
一九〇七年,一位法国观察家惊奇地发现,在利物浦,“人们觉得自己在和德国、法国连接的同时,也在和美国、澳大利亚、西非以及远东地区联系。在那里他们处于全世界的商业中心”。
This remark neatly captures the subject of John Darwin’s new book. He tracks a century of what he calls “steam globalisation”, when steamships and railways drove a dramatic acceleration in the exchange of goods, people, ideas and money across the world. Faster and cheaper transport seemed to shrink the globe; the volume of world trade and foreign investment soared. Mr Darwin shows how major port cities were both products of these transformations and agents of change. In the great opening up of the world that is his subject, the port cities were the hinges.
这句话可以拿来概括约翰·达尔文(John Darwin)新书的主题。他追溯了他称之为“蒸汽全球化”的一个世纪,期间轮船和铁路极大地加速了世界各地商品、人员、思想和金钱的交换。更快、更便宜的交通似乎把地球缩小了;世界贸易量和外国投资猛增。达尔文展示了主要的港口城市既是这些转变的产物又是改变的推动力。在他的“世界大开放”的主题中,港口城市起到了枢纽作用。
The current era of globalisation, the author notes, is not unique but the latest in a series that have built on each other in a cumulative, though not neatly linear, fashion. In the mercantile system that sprang up in the wake of the voyages of Ibn Battuta, Christopher Columbus and Vasco da Gama, Asia was the world’s workshop and Europe relatively peripheral.
作者指出,目前的全球化时代并非独一无二,而是一系列相互累积的时代中最新的一个,尽管这种累积并不是完全线性的。在伊本·白图塔(Ibn Battuta)、哥伦布和达·伽马航海之后兴起的商业体系里,亚洲是全世界的工厂,而欧洲处于相对次要的地位。
Then coal, readily available in Europe, fuelled what historians have called the “Great Divergence” of the 18th century, whereby Europe (and later North America) came to dominate. By describing the evolution and sometimes decline of a number of major port cities, most compellingly London, Bombay, Singapore and New York, Mr Darwin shows how this process worked.
随后,欧洲便于开采的煤矿资源推动了历史学家所说的18世纪的“大分流”,欧洲(以及后来的北美)开始占据主导地位。达尔文描述了一些主要港口城市的发展——有时是衰落——来展示这个过程。其中最令人信服的例子有伦敦、孟买、新加坡和纽约。
Singapore, for instance, grew exponentially, and played a central role in the industrialisation of tin and rubber production in its maritime hinterland of Malaysia. New Orleans rose in importance with the Mississippi riverboat steamer, only to decline as railway connections to Baltimore and New York changed the dynamics of American trade once more. Trieste enjoyed a brief heyday as the Austro-Hungarian Empire’s main seaport, before collapsing abruptly into romantic obscurity after 1918.
例如,新加坡经济呈指数级增长,并在马来西亚航运腹地的锡和橡胶生产的工业化进程中发挥了核心作用。新奥尔良的重要性随着密西西比河上内河轮船的出现而上升,但通往巴尔的摩和纽约的铁路再次改变了美国贸易的格局,新奥尔良的地位随之下降。作为奥匈帝国的主要海港,的里雅斯特(Trieste)曾短暂地繁荣过一段时间,但在1918年后骤然崩溃而隐匿为一个朦胧神秘之地。
Mr Darwin takes globalisation to mean primarily “economic connectedness between different parts of the world”. That is a reasonable but limited definition, missing the ascent in the 19th century of ideologies such as nationalism and socialism that purported to explain social relations around the world. Rising sciences such as geology and palaeontology had a similarly broad scope. “Unlocking” the world, meanwhile, is a vivid metaphor, but it implies a smooth, even inevitable process. In reality the world’s doors were not just unlocked, but often kicked down. Mr Darwin knows this, and stresses the influence of geopolitics and imperialism, not just free trade as an abstract concept. But he might have depicted the bootprints more graphically.
达尔文把全球化主要诠释为“世界不同地区之间经济上的连通性”。这个定义合理但有局限,它忽略了民族主义和社会主义等意识形态在19世纪的崛起,它们想要解释世界各地之间的社会关系。地质学和古生物学等新兴科学也有同样广阔的研究领域。与此同时,“解锁”世界是个生动的比喻,但暗示了一个平稳的甚至是不可避免的过程。而在现实中,世界各地的大门不只是被解锁的,而常常是被踢开的。达尔文明白这一点,他强调了地缘政治和帝国主义的影响,而不仅仅是自由贸易这个抽象概念。但他或许本可以更生动地描绘出这些足印。
Still, his book is an enjoyable synthesis of a large body of scholarship. He closes by remarking that today’s globalisation is not simply a bigger, faster version of what happened in the steam age. As in the early-modern period, Asia is once again the workshop of the world. He wonders if there is another parallel, however. In 1914 the European-dominated global economic system seemed irresistible. Then war intervened. Will a systemic crisis break the current cycle of globalisation, too?
不过,他这本书仍然是对大量学术研究的精彩集成。他在结尾处评论说,今天的全球化不仅仅是蒸汽时代全球化的更大、更快的版本。和近代早期一样,亚洲再次成为世界工厂。不过他寻思着是否还存在另一个类似的现象。1914年,欧洲主导的全球经济体系似乎势不可挡。然后战争来了。会不会再发生一场系统性危机,打破目前这一轮全球化周期?

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