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翻译园地-"坚持"用英语怎么说

adhere to, cleave to, cling onto, cling to, hold by, hold on to, hold to, insist, keep on, keep to, persevere, persist, stand by, stand on, stay with, stick by, stick to
(1) adhere to 的一个意思是“粘贴,粘(在某物上)”;另一个意思是“坚持或忠实于(意见、信仰、计划等)”。前者以物作主语,后者以人作主语。
Wet clothes adhere to the skin. 湿衣服贴在皮肤上。
We adhere to our original plan of climbing the mountain in spite of the bad weather. 尽管天气不好,我们仍坚持原来的爬山计划。
(2) cleave to与adhere to意思和用法差不多,但cleave to表示“忠实于”的意思时,可以接思想、原则、计划等,也可接人。

Wet clothes cleave to the skin. 湿衣服贴在皮肤上。
We're good friends cleaving to each other.
我们是互相忠实于对方的好朋友。
Loyal party members cleave to their party's political line.
忠诚的党员忠实于自己党的政治路线。
(3) cling onto表示:
①抓住,抱住。
The child clung onto its mother. 那小孩抱着妈妈。
The climbers tried hard to cling onto the cliff.
爬山者努力设法抓住悬崖峭壁。
②试图保持,保留;不放弃。
Whenever we move to a new house, we always cling onto far too many possessions. 每当搬新房子时,我们总是保留太多的东西不舍得丢弃。
③坚持,保持;忠实于(思想、观念等)。
The chairman has always clung onto old-fashioned ideas.
这位主席总是坚持旧的观念。
(4) cling to表示:
①靠近,贴着。
This material clings to the skin. 这种材料贴皮肤。
The ship clung to the shore. 这艘船贴近海岸航行。
②抓住,抱住。
The child clung to his mother. 那小孩抱住了妈妈。
The climbers had to cling to the cliff. 爬山者得抓住峭壁。
③试图保持,保留,不放弃。
Whenever we move to a new house, we always cling to far too many possessions. 
每当搬新房子时,我们总是保留太多的财物。
④贴近;坚持;拿着不放;忠于(人或物)。
She clung to the last streak of hope that her son was not dead.
她抱着最后一丝希望,希望自己的儿子没有死。
Don't cling to those old ideas of yours. 不要紧抓着你的那些老观念不放。
Facing the robber, she clung tightly to her possessions.
面对劫匪,她紧紧地抓住自己的财物。
(5) hold by表示“坚持,遵循,赞同”。
Throughout the whole struggle, they held by their principles.
在整个斗争中,他们始终坚持自己的原则。
I don't hold by some of the strange ideas you believe in.
我不赞成你所信奉的某些奇怪的思想。
(6) hold on to表示:
①抓住(不放);抓紧。Hold on to my hand tightly while we cross the street.
过马路时,抓紧我的手。
Don't panic; just hold on to that rock and I'll come and fetch you down.
不要害怕;抓住那块石头,我就来接你下来。
②保持;不要放弃/卖掉。
It's not enough to take over the lead; we must hold on to it!
领先了还不够;我们必须保持住!
I should hold on to these bonds; they'll surely appreciate considerably.
我们不要卖掉这些债券,它们肯定会大大增值的。
(7) ①hold to表示“坚持(意见、诺言等);(使) 遵循”。
(7) ①hold to表示“坚持(意见、诺言等);(使) 遵循”。
He held to his beliefs in spite of cruel treatment.
尽管受到残酷的虐待,他还是坚持自己的信仰。
If he tries to leave early, we shall hold him to the contract.
如果他试图早离开,我们会坚持让他遵守合同的。
This man held to his first statement, notwithstanding that several persons contradicted him.这个人坚持他最先的说法,尽管有几个人的说法与他的不一致。
After considering various alternatives, we decided to hold to our original plan.
在考虑了各种选择方案之后,我们决定坚持原来的计划。
②有时也作“抓住;把……拴/系/固定在……上”。Hold tightly to the railing when you come down the steps.
下台阶时,抓紧栏杆。
These are very poor fasteners holding the pipes to the wall, and they will soon break. 这些把管子固定在墙上的紧固件质量很差,不久就会断裂的。
(8) ①insist是“坚持要求,一定要自己或别人做某事”,常与介词on/upon连用。接从句时,须用虚拟语气,用should,或省掉should,用动词原形。
I insist that the work be finished by the middle of June.
我坚持要这项工作在6月中旬前完成。
I must insist on your giving me a straightforward answer.
我必须坚持要你给我一个直截了当的回答。
We must insist on/upon state help being given to the enterprises worth it.
我们必须坚持国家的帮助要给予那些值得帮助的企业。
A: You must stay for lunch. 你一定要留下来吃午饭。
B: All right, if you insist. 如果你非要留我,那好吧。
②insist还表示“强调、坚持说(……是事实)”,从句不用虚拟。
He insisted that he saw somebody standing outside the window that night.
他坚持说那天夜里他看见有人站在窗外。
She insisted to everyone present that he was innocent.
她对在场的每一个人坚持说他是无辜的。
The teacher insists on the importance of being punctual.
这位老师强调守时的重要性。
(9) keep on意为“尽管有困难也坚持下去;继续做下去”,on为副词。
Even if you fail the exam again, you must try to keep on until you pass.
即便这次考试还不及格,你一定要努力坚持下去,直到通过。
I've never won anything yet, but I intend to keep on until I do.
我还未曾取得过什么成绩呢,但我打算坚持做下去,直到事业有成。
(10) keep to表示:
①(使) 遵循,遵守;(使) 按……行事,后接信仰、指示、计划、诺言、时间表等。
One should keep to his promises if he wants to win confidence of others.
如果一个人想赢得别人的信任,他就应当遵守诺言。
They keep to the custom of having their marriages only in May.
他们遵守着只在5月份嫁娶这一风俗。
Having once made a plan, you should keep to it.
一旦制订了计划,你就应遵守它。
I shall keep you to your promise to come and see us next year.
我将要你遵守诺言,明年过来看我们。
②坚持不辍(做某事)。
He had more than once kept to his task for a week at a stretch.
他曾不止一次连续一周执行任务。Keep to your studies. You must not stop till you obtain your diploma.
坚持你的学业,不要停止,直到取得文凭。
③留在(某处),待在(……里面);待在某处;向(某处) 运动。
Jack was obliged to keep to his bed because of a fever.
杰克因为发烧,不得不卧床休养。
During the winter, a lot of old people are forced to keep to the house, the weather being so cold and treacherous.
冬季里,天气那么寒冷又变化莫测,许多老年人被迫待在屋里。
Traffic in England keeps to the left. 在英国,车辆是靠左行驶的。
If you keep to the main road you won't get lost.
只要你不离开这条主道,就不会迷路。
④(使)不离开(主题)。
Do let's keep to the subject; we're trying to reach an agreement, not have a conversation. 咱们别离开话题,咱们是在设法达成一项协议,而不是交谈。
It's part of the chairman's duty to keep each speaker to the point, to save time.
使每位讲话者不偏离话题,从而不浪费时间,是会议主席责任的一部分。
(11) persevere表示“坚持,固守”,尤其用于困难、令人厌倦的事,强调坚忍、孜孜不倦、不屈不挠,与in, at, with连用。
If you persevere at/in your search for a job, you're sure to find something suitable in the end.如果你坚持找一份工作,你最终总会找到某个合适的差事的。
It's not easy to persevere with such dull work, but it has to be finished.
坚持做这种乏味的工作是不容易的,但必须完成它。
So long as you persevere in/with your studies, you'll succeed in time.
只要你孜孜不倦地钻研下去,最终你会成功的。
(12) ①persist意为“坚持、继续(做某事)”,侧重指“尽管有争议、反对、失败、困难等,也不改变信仰或所做之事”,多与in连用,可用被动结构。
Why does the boy persist in his troublesome behavior?
为什么那个男孩坚持他那令人厌烦的行为?
If this behavior of yours is persisted in, it could lead to serious trouble.
如果你坚持这种行为不改,可能会导致严重的麻烦。
Why do you persist in interrupting me when I have repeatedly asked you to stop? 为什么我一再让你别这么做,你还老是打断我?
Despite hardships, Mary persisted in her efforts to get a college education.
尽管有许多艰难困苦,玛丽还是继续努力接受大学教育。
②persist还表示“坚持说,反复说”,与insist用作此义时相近。
She persisted that Jack was innocent of the crime. 她坚持说杰克没有犯罪。
He persisted to everyone at the party that he was quite recovered.
他反复对参加聚会的每个人说,他的身体已恢复得很好了。
(13) stand by也可表示“忠于(某人);支持;站在……一边;遵守;坚持”。
Ours are all developing countries and should stand by one another.
我们都是发展中国家,应该互相支持。
A real friend is one who will stand by you through thick and thin.
一个真正的朋友应是与你同甘共苦的人。
One should always stand by his promises. 一个人应永远遵守诺言。
Do you still stand by what you said yesterday? 你仍然坚持昨天说的话吗?
(14) stand on也可表示“按……行事;坚持”,on为介词。
I stand on my rights in this matter, and will take the matter to court if necessary. 对这件事,我将坚持自己的权利,必要时将诉诸法律。
Do you still stand on your original point of view?
你仍然坚持你原来的观点吗?
(15) stay with也可表示“坚持,继续使用”。
Shall we stay with the present arrangements until a better plan is thought out?我们是否坚持目前的方案直到想出一个更好的计划?
How long have you stayed with this method?
你坚持用这种方法多久了?
(16) stick by表示“忠于(某人);遵循(思想、原则、诺言等)”。
His family can be trusted to stick by him whatever happens.
不论发生什么事,都可以相信他的家庭忠于他。
We are good friends sticking by each other in good times or bad.
我们是不论在顺境还是逆境都能互相忠于对方的好朋友。
(17) stick to可表示:
①黏或贴在……上。
The mat seems to be stuck to the floor, I can't move it.
这个垫子似乎牢牢地黏在了地板上,我无法移动它。
②靠近,顺着(路线或方向)。Stick close to me and you won't get lost. 紧跟着我,你就不会迷路。
The ship had to stick to shore because of the heavy mist.
因为大雾,轮船只好贴着海岸航行。
③按照……做/讲;遵循;忠于(某人、思想、原则、诺言等)。
When you're asked to give an account of the accident, do stick to the fact, don't guess.当叫你来说明这场事故时,一定要实事求是,不要主观臆想。
When writing an article, stick to one style throughout.
在写文章时,自始至终要遵循一种风格。
His family can be trusted to stick to him always.
他的家庭非常忠于他,这一点是可以信得过的。
④试图保住,保持。
He made every effort to stick to the job he had.
他千方百计试图保住他那份工作。
The old ladies were determined to stick to their homes in spite of the new road going through.
尽管新道路从中穿过,这些老太太还是决心保住自己的家园。
⑤坚持做(某事)。
If you stick to practicing the piano every day, you'll certainly become quite a good musician.如果你坚持每天练习弹琴,你肯定会成为一名非常优秀的音乐家。
Learning any skill is largely a matter of sticking to it until you can do it better. 学习Learning any skill is largely a matter of sticking to it until you can do it better. 学习任何一门手艺大致上都是个熟能生巧的问题。
 
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