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一、经济学人杂志双语文章摘要

问题是抛弃华为的代价高昂。各国可能会变得依赖诺基亚和爱立信这两大北欧公司,它们是5G设备另两个主要供应商。从长远来看,双头垄断不利于竞争和创新。而在短期内,这两家公司无一绝对可靠,特别是深陷困境的诺基亚。10月29日,诺基亚宣布销售额同比下降7%,股价暴跌近20%。它的新老板表示,诺基亚在5G方面已经“明显落后”。

二、经济学人杂志双语文章中英对照翻译

Open sesame 芝麻开门

2020.8


Alternative 5G technology 【首文】5G技术替代方案
A new technology could be the answer to the Huawei dilemma that many countries are still torn over
一项新技术可能破解令多国仍然左右为难的华为难题

经济学人双语杂志


THE SIGNAL was easy to miss amid the noise of new lockdowns and America’s elections. Earlier this month, Vodafone, a mobile operator, announced that in Britain it would use a technology called OpenRAN to replace some gear made by Huawei, a Chinese firm whose products are considered too much of a security risk to be used in the new 5G mobile networks. It is a sign that the much-discussed Huawei dilemma is not as intractable as it may seem—and a reminder that OpenRAN deserves more private-sector and government support.
在封城新令和美国大选的喧嚣中,很容易错过这个信号。本月初,移动运营商沃达丰(Vodafone)宣布将在英国使用一项名为OpenRAN的技术来取代一些华为制造的设备——这家中国公司的产品目前被多国认为安全风险太大而不能用于新的5G网络。这个消息透露出备受热议的华为难题并没有看起来那么棘手,也提醒人们OpenRAN值得私营部门和政府提供更多支持。
In recent years America has conducted a campaign against Huawei, which it worries poses a threat to Western interests and which has built a commanding position in 5G systems globally. Australia, Canada and Japan have already in effect banned Huawei from their 5G networks. In July Britain said it would phase out its gear, and on October 20th Sweden said it would impose a ban, too. More countries may follow.
近年来,美国针对华为发起连串攻势,担心已经在全球5G系统中建立了领军地位的华为对西方国家的利益构成威胁。澳大利亚、加拿大和日本实际上已经禁止华为进入其5G网络。7月,英国表示将逐步停用华为的设备,瑞典也在10月20日表示将对华为实施禁令。接下来可能还会有更多国家加入这个队列。
The trouble is that the costs of ditching Huawei are high: you risk becoming reliant on two big Nordic firms, Nokia and Ericsson, the other main suppliers of 5G gear. In the long run a duopoly is bad for competition and innovation. And in the short run neither firm is infallible. Nokia, in particular, is in trouble. On October 29th it announced a drop in sales of 7% year on year, and its shares plunged by almost 20%. Its new boss said that it had been “clearly behind” on 5G.
问题是抛弃华为的代价高昂。各国可能会变得依赖诺基亚和爱立信这两大北欧公司,它们是5G设备另两个主要供应商。从长远来看,双头垄断不利于竞争和创新。而在短期内,这两家公司无一绝对可靠,特别是深陷困境的诺基亚。10月29日,诺基亚宣布销售额同比下降7%,股价暴跌近20%。它的新老板表示,诺基亚在5G方面已经“明显落后”。
OpenRAN is an alternative to relying on either Huawei or the Nordic duo. Along with a related technology called network virtualisation, it changes the rules of the game. To understand why, compare an old tethered telephone with a modern smartphone. One is a dedicated piece of hardware made of customised parts, whereas the other is a general-purpose computer controlled by software that can accommodate any type of app, provided it complies with certain technical rules.
OpenRAN是依赖华为或北欧两巨头之外的另一种选择。和一项名为网络虚拟化的相关技术一道,它改变了游戏规则。要了解何以如此,可以比较一下老式有线电话和现代智能手机。前者是由定制部件组成的专用硬件,后者则是由软件控制的通用计算机,能容纳任何类型的应用,只要它们符合一定的技术规则。
Similarly, conventional mobile networks are made out of specialised equipment, whereas the new OpenRAN kind use mostly off-the-shelf hardware, with lots of code defining what it can do. Because all the gear connects up using standard interfaces, carriers can mix and match products from different suppliers—something that they cannot do today. Operators have more insight into what is going on in their networks and can avoid components they do not trust, such as Chinese chips. They could also save a lot of money and become quicker on their feet.
同样地,传统的移动网络由专门的设备构成,而新的OpenRAN网络主要使用现成的硬件,用大量的代码定义其功能。由于所有的设备都通过标准接口相连,所以运营商可以将不同供应商的产品混搭使用——它们在目前的网络中无法这么做。运营商可以更深入地了解自己的网络正在运行的情况,还能避免使用它们不信任的组件,比如中国的芯片。它们还能节省大笔资金,更加随机应变。
OpenRAN is gaining momentum. Last month Rakuten Mobile launched the world’s first 5G network based on OpenRAN—which helped the Japanese carrier cut investment by 40%. It can also put together new services within minutes instead of months, as is the case with conventional networks. In September Telefónica, which has 260m mobile subscribers in Europe and Latin America, teamed up with Rakuten to deploy OpenRAN more widely in its networks by 2025. In America Dish has started to build a 5G network based on the technology. With the notable exception of Huawei, even equipment-makers are coming on board. Ericsson has just announced its first related product.
OpenRAN势头渐盛。上个月日本运营商乐天移动(Rakuten Mobile)推出了全球首个基于OpenRAN的5G网络,帮它削减了40%的投资。该网络还能在几分钟内将新服务聚合起来,而不用像传统网络那样需要数月之久。9月,在欧洲和拉美拥有2.6亿移动用户的西班牙电信(Telefónica)与乐天达成合作,计划到2025年在其网络中更广泛地部署OpenRAN。在美国,Dish已经开始建设基于该技术的5G网络。除了华为这一明显的例外,就连设备制造商也纷纷加入。爱立信刚刚宣布推出首款相关产品。
Yet OpenRAN still has problems. The supply chain is untested and may face bottlenecks if demand suddenly surges as more mobile operators sign up. Notwithstanding its roll-out in urban parts of Japan, experts fear that the technology may not yet function well in densely populated cities; most carriers, including Vodafone, want to test it in rural areas first. Integrating the many different products that make up an OpenRAN network is hard. And although the technology lowers the potential security threat from China, it creates new openings for hackers.
不过,OpenRAN仍然存在问题。其供应链未经考验,随着更多移动运营商加入,一旦需求突然激增,可能面临瓶颈。虽然OpenRAN已经在日本的城区推广,但专家担心这项技术在人口稠密的城市可能还无法很好地发挥作用;包括沃达丰在内的大多数运营商也都希望先在乡村地区测试。整合构成OpenRAN网络的许多不同产品很难。虽然该技术降低了来自中国的潜在安全威胁,但它也给黑客创造了新的机会。
All this means that governments still have a role to play. They should help tackle bottlenecks by, for example, encouraging investment in the development of specialist chips that power antennae, as well as laboratories that test integration of a network’s components, as lawmakers in America have proposed. They should also follow Japan by promoting a common set of standards among equipment-makers and network-operators that deals with security and mandates at least some compliance with OpenRAN. The choice between relying on a monolithic Chinese firm that is not fully trusted or on a doddery Western duopoly is a rotten one. It would be a lot better to give a new type of technology a chance to thrive.
所有这些意味着仍需要政府发挥作用。它们应该帮助消除瓶颈,例如鼓励投资研发专门的天线驱动芯片,以及用于测试网络组件集成的实验室,正如美国的议员们提议的那样。它们还应效仿日本,在设备制造商和网络运营商中推广一套共同标准,以应对安全问题,并要求至少在一定程度上遵循OpenRAN。是依赖一家不被完全信任的中国巨头,还是依赖一个老化的西方双头垄断,这个二选一实在糟糕。给一项新技术一个腾飞的机会要好太多了。