点击经济学人/经济学人杂志查看全部经济学人文章

一、经济学人杂志双语文章摘要

Einride与其他大多数车辆自主性探索项目的第二个不同之处是对“无人驾驶”一词的理解。一些制造商按字面意思来,打算将人类完全排除在决策过程之外。其他一些公司往往是出于满足交通法规的需要,安排驾驶员在车内待命,必要时可以接管车辆。Pod代表了第三种方式。始终有一个人负责监控整个驾驶过程,在操作有困难或出现问题时接手。不过这个人是在远程操控。

二、经济学人杂志双语文章中英对照翻译

Look, no hands! 看,没用手

2020.11


A driverless lorry is put through its paces on a famous test track
一辆无人驾驶货车在一条著名的试车跑道上经受考验

经济学人双语杂志

Come on Stig. Make my day THANKS TO“Top Gear”, a British television show for motoring enthusiasts that is now a global brand, a former second-world-war airfield called Dunsfold has become one of the best known testing tracks in the world. On October 15th, however, instead of reverberating to the roar of supercars driven by the show’s anonymous racing driver, the Stig, it witnessed the sight of what appeared to be the cabless trailer of an articulated lorry belting almost silently around the course at over 80kph.
在成为《疯狂汽车秀》(Top Gear)这档面向汽车爱好者、现已成为全球品牌的英国电视节目的拍摄地之后,二战时期的敦斯福德机场(Dunsfold)变成了全球最闻名的试车场之一。但在10月15日这一天,场地上没有响起该节目的匿名赛车手试替哥(Stig)驾驶的超级跑车的轰鸣声,却出现了一台像是铰接式货车的无缆线拖车部分的东西,以80多公里的时速近乎悄无声息地在场地上绕圈。
The Pod (see picture), as this vehicle is known, was made by Einride, a Swedish firm founded in 2016 by Robert Falck, an engineer who used to work for Volvo. Mr Falck thinks that the technology of vehicle autonomy, long experimental, has now evolved sufficiently for driverless goods vehicles to begin earning their livings properly. Some Pods are already in trials for real jobs: running between warehouses, hauling logs from forests and delivering goods for Lidl, a supermarket group.
这辆名为Pod(见图)的货车由瑞典公司Einride制造,该公司由曾在沃尔沃工作的工程师罗伯特·法尔克(Robert Falck)于2016年创立。法尔克认为,长期处于实验阶段的无人驾驶技术如今已发展充分,可以让无人货车开始营业赚钱了。一些Pod货车已经在试验实际工作,比如在仓库间穿梭,从森林中运输原木,为连锁超市利多(Lidl)送货。
Pods use the same technology of cameras, radar, lidar (the optical equivalent of radar) and satellite-positioning as other contenders in the field, but they differ from those others in the way their maker tries to deal with the regulatory concerns which prevent fully autonomous vehicles from being let loose on public roads. Einride’s approach, at least at the moment, is to avoid these by avoiding the roads in question. Instead, the Pod’s first version operates on designated routes within the confines of enclosed, private areas such as ports and industrial parks. Here, Pods act like bigger and smarter versions of the delivery robots which already run around some factories—though by having the ability to carry 16 tonnes and with room on board for 15 industrial pallets’-worth of goods they are indeed quite a lot bigger.
Pod货车使用的摄像头、雷达、激光雷达(即运用光学原理探测的雷达)和卫星定位技术与行业内的其他竞争者无异,但它们的制造商尝试应对监管问题的方式与别人不同。现行法规不允许完全自主驾驶的车辆在公共道路上自由行驶。Einride规避法规的方法是避开公共道路——至少目前是如此。它选择让第一个版本的Pod在港口和工业园区等封闭的私人区域内的指定路线上运行。在这些地方,Pod就像那些已经在一些工厂中奔忙的送货机器人,只不过体积更大,也更智能。它们可真不是一般地大——可载重16吨,容纳15个工业托盘的货物。
The second difference from most other attempts at vehicle autonomy is Einride’s approach to the word “autonomy”. Some makers take the idea literally, and aim to keep humans out of the decision-making loop entirely. Others, often prompted by traffic regulations, arrange things so that a normally passive human occupant can take the controls if necessary. Pods represent a third way. They always have a human in the loop to keep an eye on what is happening and to take over the driving for a difficult manoeuvre or if something goes wrong. But this human operates remotely.
Einride与其他大多数车辆自主性探索项目的第二个不同之处是对“无人驾驶”一词的理解。一些制造商按字面意思来,打算将人类完全排除在决策过程之外。其他一些公司往往是出于满足交通法规的需要,安排驾驶员在车内待命,必要时可以接管车辆。Pod代表了第三种方式。始终有一个人负责监控整个驾驶过程,在操作有困难或出现问题时接手。不过这个人是在远程操控。
Having the driver sitting back at HQ rather than in the vehicle itself is a departure from convention, but not a huge one. Aerial drones are usually controlled in this way. The radical step is that Mr Falck believes you do not need a remote driver for each Pod. Einride already uses one person to control two Pods, but plans eventually for a single driver to look after ten.
让驾驶员坐在控制中心而不是车上算是另辟蹊径,但也没有偏离大路很远。无人机一般就是这样远程控制的。Einride更激进的地方在于法尔克认为不需要为每辆Pod都安排一位远程驾驶员。它已经在让一名驾驶员远程控制两辆Pod,但最终的计划是一名驾驶员负责十辆车。
How regulators will take to that for use on open roads remains to be seen. Much will depend on how often the remote driver has to intervene. If not very often then monitoring simultaneous Pods might be considered acceptable. Again, this could come about in a similar way to that in which drones have entered the market. At first regulators banned flights that were out-of-sight of the remote pilot, but as operating experience has shown such flights to be safe, they are often allowed these days. Now, some test flights using multiple drones controlled by one remote pilot have been given permission.
监管机构对于让这样的车辆开上开放道路态度如何仍有待观察。这将在很大程度上取决于远程驾驶员必须出手干预的频率。如果不需要经常干预,同时监控多辆Pod也许就会被认为是可接受的。这同样可能与无人机进入市场的方式相似。监管机构起初禁止无人机在远程飞行员视线范围之外飞行,但由于运行经验表明这样的飞行是安全的,如今这种操作通常是被允许的。现在,由一名远程飞行员控制多架无人机的一些试飞项目已经获得许可。
Having tested the area-restricted version of the Pod, Einride is now developing Pods intended to venture onto local roads, and one suitable for motorways is planned for 2023—with remote operators, if allowed. Though Pods working in private enclosed areas have their speeds restricted to 30kph or so, to help with multiple remote-monitoring, those intended for public roads will operate at higher speeds and be equipped with more powerful, long-range sensors. All these vehicles, if successful, promise not only a change in the way that goods are delivered, but also the possibility of another of the oddball races “Top Gear” is famous for—between the Stig in a conventional lorry and, with its speed governor disabled for the day, the electronic system guiding one of Mr Falck’s creations.
在测试了限定区域的Pod后,Einride目前正在研发能进入市区道路的Pod,并计划在2023年推出配备远程驾驶员的高速路版无人货车——如果获批准的话。在私人封闭区域中行驶的Pod的时速被限制在30公里左右,以实现一对多的远程监控,而计划开上公共道路的Pod行驶速度将更快,并配备功能更强大的远程传感器。如果成功,这些货车不仅有望改变货物的运输方式,还可能让《疯狂汽车秀》再多一场令它出名的奇葩比赛——让试替哥驾驶传统卡车,和解除了限速的由电子系统引导的Pod一较高下。