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一、经济学人杂志双语文章摘要

从进化的角度看,这似乎令人意外。让新生儿接触这种充满细菌的排泄物看起来很危险,但人体并没有产生什么机制来阻止它发生。此外,越来越多的证据表明这种接触不仅无害,实际上对新生儿免疫系统的发育很重要。出生时接触多种微生物能帮助新生儿的免疫系统学习分清敌友。

二、经济学人杂志双语文章中英对照翻译

Germ lines 细菌防线
How to arm Caesarean babies with the bacteria they need
如何为剖宫产新生儿提供他们需要的细菌

经济学人


CHILDBIRTH IS MESSY. When a baby comes out, a lot else comes out with it. Some of this material is inevitable, such as the amniotic fluid that presages birth and the placenta which follows it. But a fair bit of faeces is discharged, too.
生孩子的场景一片狼藉。孩子离开母体时会带出很多别的东西。有些是不可避免的,比如在分娩开始前就会流出的羊水和分娩后排出来的胎盘。但也会排出一些粪便。
From an evolutionary perspective, that seems surprising. Exposing newborns to such bacteria-laden excrement looks risky. Yet no mechanism has arisen to stop it happening. Evidence is mounting, moreover, that far from being harmful, this exposure is actually important for the development of the child’s immune system. Interaction with the multitude of microscopic organisms a baby picks up when it is born helps that system to learn friend from foe. Without it, immune disorders like allergies and type-1 diabetes may follow. Components of the gut flora are also involved in digesting certain foodstuffs containing complex carbohydrates, and an unbalance in the relevant microbial mix is implicated in obesity.
从进化的角度看,这似乎令人意外。让新生儿接触这种充满细菌的排泄物看起来很危险,但人体并没有产生什么机制来阻止它发生。此外,越来越多的证据表明这种接触不仅无害,实际上对新生儿免疫系统的发育很重要。出生时接触多种微生物能帮助新生儿的免疫系统学习分清敌友。如果没有这种接触,以后可能就会出现诸如过敏和1型糖尿病等免疫性疾病。肠道菌群中的一些细菌也参与消化某些含有复杂碳水化合物的食物,这种微生物群组合中的失衡与过度肥胖有关联。
Babies born via Caesarean section (ie, surgical removal directly from the womb) do not get such a biological baptism, and their guts are left bacterially bereft as a consequence. That has left doctors wondering how best to give them what they are missing. In the past, researchers have skirted around the central point by swabbing the faces of newborns with bacteria collected from their mothers’ vaginas. To no avail. Willem de Vos and Sture Andersson of the University of Helsinki, have therefore taken the bull by the horns. In a paper just published in Cell they demonstrate that feeding newborns a dose of their mothers’ gut bacteria, in the form of faeces inoculated into breast milk, seems more fruitful.
剖宫产的婴儿(即手术切开子宫直接取出婴儿)没有经过这种生物洗礼,他们的肠道也就缺乏这些菌群。医生们思考着如何以最好的方式弥补他们的缺失。过去,研究人员采用了间接方式,用采集自母亲阴道的细菌擦拭新生儿面部,但没有效果。赫尔辛基大学(University of Helsinki)的威廉·德沃斯(Willem de Vos)和塞特·安德森(Sture Andersson)因此大胆地采取了更直接的方式。在刚刚发表在《细胞》(Cell)杂志上的一篇论文中,他们展示了直接给新生儿喂食一定剂量的母亲肠道内的细菌(在母乳中加入母体粪便)的做法似乎更有成效。
Dr de Vos and Dr Andersson selected seven mothers-to-be who had elected, for medical reasons, to have their children delivered by Caesarean. They were screened to make sure they had no pathogenic bacteria in their faeces. And none had recently taken antibiotics.
德沃斯和安德森挑选了七位因医学原因选择剖宫产的准妈妈。她们接受了筛查,以确保粪便中没有致病菌。而且她们近期都没有服用过抗生素。
Collectively, these seven women gave birth to five girls and two boys, all healthy. Each of the newborns was syringe-fed a dose of breast milk immediately after birth—a dose that had been inoculated with a few grams of faeces collected three weeks earlier from its mother. None of the babies showed any adverse reactions to this procedure. All then had their faeces analysed regularly during the following weeks. For comparison, the researchers collected faecal samples from 47 other infants, 29 of which had been born normally and 18 by Caesarean section.
这七名产妇共生下五名女婴和两名男婴,都很健康。每个新生儿在出生后都立即用注射器服食了一剂母乳,其中加入了三周前从各自母亲那里采集到的几克粪便。所有新生儿对此均未见任何不良反应。在接下来的数周里,他们的粪便都定期接受了分析。为了进行对比,研究人员还采集了另外47名新生儿的粪便样本,其中29名顺产,18名剖宫产。
Dr de Vos and Dr Andersson found that, though the bacterial populations in the faeces of the seven treated infants initially resembled those found in the faeces of the untreated Caesarean-born infants, this quickly changed. Within three weeks their gut floras had come to resemble the bacterial mix seen in the vaginally born infants. Whether this shift to normality will reduce the chances of children treated in this way developing immune-related maladies later in life remains to be determined by longer and larger studies—which Dr de Vos and Dr Andersson are now planning.
德沃斯和安德森发现,尽管最初这七名婴儿粪便中的菌群与未经菌群移植的剖宫产婴儿相似,但事情很快发生了变化。在三周内,七名婴儿的肠道菌群已变得与阴道分娩的婴儿相似。这种向常态的转变是否会降低接受了菌群移植的婴儿日后出现免疫性疾病的几率,还有待更长时间和更大范围的研究——德沃斯和安德森正在计划后续研究。