Why are pencils shaped like hexagons, and howdid they get their iconic yellow color? Pencilshop owner Caroline Weaver takes us inside the fascinating history of the pencil.
为什么铅笔的形状都是六边形的,并带有标志性的黄色?铅笔店的主人卡洛琳?韦弗将带我们进入铅笔迷人的发展史之中。

TED演讲

一、TED演讲视频

二、TED演讲稿

The sound is a really big part, I think, of the experience of using a pencil, and it has this really audible scratchiness. 我认为 在铅笔的使用体验中 声音是非常重要的 它 有着很明显的沙沙声
[00:12] (Scratching) (铅笔刮擦声)
[00:18] [Small thing. Big idea.] 小东西 大创意
[00:22] [Caroline Weaver on the Pencil] The pencil is a very simple object. (卡洛琳?韦弗与铅笔) 铅笔是一个很简单的物件
[00:25] It's made of wood with some layers of paint an eraser and a core, which is made out of graphite, clay and water. 它是由涂着几层颜料的木头制成的 包括一个橡皮 和一个笔芯 笔芯是由石墨 黏土和水制成的
[00:30] Yeah, it took hundreds of people over centuries to come to this design. 没错 数以百计的人经历了几个世纪 才完成了这个 设计
[00:37] And it's that long history of collaboration that, to me, makes it a very perfect object. 对于我来说正是由于悠久的 合作历史 才使它 成为 一个完美的物件
[00:41] The story of the pencil starts with graphite. 铅笔的历史起源于石墨
[00:47] People started finding really useful applications for this new substance. 人们在设法为这个新物质寻找
[00:50] They cut it into small sticks and wrapped it in string or sheepskin or paper and sold it on the streets of London to be used for writing or for drawing or, a lot of times, by farmers and shepherds, who used it to mark their animals. 他们把它切成小长条 包在线 羊皮或纸里 在伦敦街 头出售 供人们在写字或画画的时候使用 很多时候 它还被农民和牧人 用来标记他们的动物
[01:07] From there, this paste was filled into a mold and fired in a kiln, and the result was a really strong graphite core that wasn't breakable, that was smooth, usable -- 再把这个糊状物塞到一个模具里 然后放到窑炉里 烤 拿出之后就成了非常坚硬的石墨芯 它坚固耐用 质地平滑并且便于使用
[01:16] it was so much better than anything else that existed at the time, and to this day, that's the method that's still used in making pencils. 它比那个时候已有的 其他任何东西都要好 至今为 止 铅笔的制作 仍然沿用这一方法
[01:25] Meanwhile, over in America, in Concord, Massachusetts, it was Henry David Thoreau who came up with the grading scale for different hardnesses of pencil. 同时 在美国马萨诸塞州的康科德市 亨利·大卫·梭 罗针对不同的铅笔 制定了硬度的等级表
[01:33] It was graded one through four, number two being the ideal hardness for general use. 从 1 级到 4 级 2 级是一般用途最理想的硬度
[01:47] The firmer the pencil, the more clay it had in it and the lighter and finer it will be. 铅笔越坚硬 泥土含量越多 线条更明亮 更精细
[01:53] Originally, when pencils were handmade, they were made round. 最初 在手工制造阶段 铅笔是被制成圆形的
[01:58] There was no easy way to make them, and it was the Americans who really mechanized the craft. 制作方法很复杂 是美国人真正实现了生产机械化
[02:01] A lot of people credit Joseph Dixon for being one of the first people to start developing actual machines to do things like cut wood slats, cut grooves into the wood, apply glue to them ... 许多人将其归功于杰瑟夫·迪克森 因为他是最早研 发 真正意义上的机器的人之一 使机器可以做类似 于切木板 在木板上切凹槽 涂胶水这样的事
And they figured out it was easier and less wasteful to do a hexagonal pencil, and so that became the standard. 并且他们发现制作六边形铅笔 更简单 浪费也更少 因此就把六边形铅笔作为 标准铅笔
[02:17] Since the early days of pencils, people have loved that they can be erased. 在铅笔诞生的初期 人们就喜欢 它们能够被橡皮擦 除这一点
[02:29] The attached eraser happened in 1858, when American stationer Hymen Lipman patented the first pencil with an attached eraser, which really changed the pencil game. 1858年开始 橡皮被加在铅笔上 那时候美国的文具 商海门·力普曼 为第一个附带橡皮的铅笔 申请了专 利 这确实带来了铅笔的发展变革
[02:35] The world's first yellow pencil was the KOH-I-NOOR 1500. 世界上第一个黄色的铅笔是 KOH-I-NOOR 1500
[02:46] KOH-I-NOOR did this crazy thing where they painted this pencil with 14 coats ofyellow paint and dipped the end in 14-carat gold. KOH-I-NOOR做了个疯狂的举动 他们在铅笔表面 涂了14层的黄色颜料 并且把铅笔末端浸泡在14k 金里
[02:50] There is a pencil for everyone, and every pencil has a story. 每个人都有一支铅笔 每支铅笔都有一段故事
[02:57] The Blackwing 602 is famous for being used by a lot of writers, especially John Steinbeck and Vladimir Nabokov. Blackwing 602 因被很多作家使用而出名 尤其是 约翰·斯坦贝克 和弗拉基米尔·纳博科夫
[03:01] And then,you have the Dixon pencil company. 然后就是迪克逊铅笔公司
[03:09] They're responsible for the Dixon Ticonderoga. 他们制作了迪克逊·泰康德儒格 这款经典的铅笔
[03:11] It's an icon, it's what people think of when they think of a pencil and what they think of when they think of school. 它是一个标杆 当人们想到铅笔时就会想到它 当他 们想到学校的时候也会想到它
And the pencil's really a thing that, I think, the average user has never thought twice about, how it's made or why it's made the way it is, because it's just always been that way. 我认为 事实上 铅笔是这么一种产品 普通用户都不 会过多去思考 它是如何被制造的 或者为什么用这 种方法制造 因为它一直是以这种方式 呈现在大家 的面前
[03:21] In my opinion, there's nothing that can be done to make the pencil better than it is. 在我看来 没有任何方式 可以让铅笔比现在更好
[03:30] It's perfect. 它非常完美