欧盟已经在8800亿美元的新冠复苏计划中拨出30%的资金用于应对气候变化。几十年来,缺乏动力发展经济的委内瑞拉和沙特阿拉伯等产油国一直深陷补贴和裙带政治的泥潭。如果采取大胆行动,太阳能和风能等可再生能源可能会从目前占供应量的5%上升到2035年的25%,再到2050年的接近50%。

 

一、经济学人杂志双语文章MP3音频


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二、经济学人杂志双语文章中英对照翻译

Power in the 21st century 21世纪的能源势力
2020.10

 

21世纪的能源势力


Efforts to rein in climate change will up-end the geopolitics of energy
为遏制气候变化所做的努力将颠覆能源的地缘政治格局 
OIL FUELLED the 20th century—its cars, its wars, its economy and its geopolitics. Now the world is in the midst of an energy shock that is speeding up the shift to a new order. As covid-19 struck the global economy earlier this year, demand for oil dropped by more than a fifth and prices collapsed. Since then there has been a jittery recovery, but a return to the old world is unlikely. Fossil-fuel producers are being forced to confront their vulnerabilities. ExxonMobil has been ejected from the Dow Jones Industrial Average, having been a member since 1928. Petrostates such as Saudi Arabia need an oil price of $70-80 a barrel to balance their budgets. Today it is scraping along at just $40.
石油推动了20世纪,包括这个时期的汽车、战争、经济和地缘政治。如今,世界正处于一场能源冲击中,向新秩序的转变也由此加速。今年年初,新冠肺炎冲击全球经济,石油需求下降超过五分之一,油价暴跌。自那之后,油价震荡回升,但不太可能恢复到过去的水平。化石燃料生产商正被迫正视自己的脆弱。自1928年以来一直都是道琼斯工业指数成分股的埃克森美孚已被移出了该指数。沙特阿拉伯等产油国需要油价维持在每桶70至80美元才能平衡预算。目前油价在40美元的低位徘徊。
There have been oil slumps before, but this one is different. As the public, governments and investors wake up to climate change, the clean-energy industry is gaining momentum. Capital markets have shifted: clean-power stocks are up by 45% this year. With interest rates near zero, politicians are backing green-infrastructure plans. America’s Democratic presidential contender, Joe Biden, wants to spend $2trn decarbonising America’s economy. The European Union has earmarked 30% of its $880bn covid-19 recovery plan for climate measures, and its president, Ursula von der Leyen, used her state-of-the-union address last month to confirm that she wants the EU to cut greenhouse-gas emissions by 55% over 1990 levels in the next decade.
油价过去也暴跌过,但这次不同于以往。随着公众、政府和投资者意识到气候变化的重要性,清洁能源产业势头正猛。资本市场已经发生了转变:今年,清洁能源股票上涨了45%。在利率接近于零之时,政客们开始支持绿色基建计划。美国民主党总统候选人拜登想花费2万亿美元让美国经济脱碳。欧盟已经在8800亿美元的新冠复苏计划中拨出30%的资金用于应对气候变化。欧盟委员会主席乌尔苏拉·冯德莱恩(Ursula von der Leyen)上月在发表“盟情咨文”时再度确认,她希望欧盟在接下来的10年里将温室气体排放量相比1990年减少55%。
The 21st-century energy system promises to be better than the oil age—better for human health, more politically stable and less economically volatile. The shift involves big risks. If disorderly, it could add to political and economic instability in petrostates and concentrate control of the green-supply chain in China. Even more dangerous, it could happen too slowly.
本世纪的能源系统有望好于石油时代——更有益于人类健康,在政治上更稳定,在经济上也能少一些动荡。这场转型风险巨大。如果无序进行,它可能加剧产油国政治和经济上的不稳定,并把绿色供应链的控制权集中到中国。更危险的是,转型的步伐可能太慢。
Today fossil fuels are the ultimate source of 85% of energy. But this system is dirty. Energy accounts for two-thirds of greenhouse-gas emissions; the pollution from burning fossil fuels kills over 4m people a year, mostly in the emerging world’s mega-cities. Oil has also created political instability. For decades petrostates such as Venezuela and Saudi Arabia, with little incentive to develop their economies, have been mired in the politics of handouts and cronyism. In an effort to ensure secure supplies, the world’s big powers have vied to influence these states, not least in the Middle East, where America has roughly 60,000 troops. Fossil fuels cause economic volatility, too. Oil markets are buffeted by an erratic cartel. Concentration of the world’s oil reserves makes supply vulnerable to geopolitical shocks. Little wonder that the price has swung by over 30% in a sixth-month period 62 times since 1970.
目前,化石燃料是85%的能源的根本来源。但这一系统污染严重。世界三分之二的温室气体排放源自使用能源;燃烧化石燃料带来的污染每年导致400多万人死亡,大部分是在新兴国家的大城市。石油还造成政治不稳定。几十年来,缺乏动力发展经济的委内瑞拉和沙特阿拉伯等产油国一直深陷补贴和裙带政治的泥潭。为确保供应稳定,世界各大国竞相对这些产油国施加影响,尤其是在有约六万美军驻守的中东。化石燃料也给经济带来不稳定。捉摸不定的卡特尔组织欧佩克不断冲击着石油市场。全球石油储量的集中让供给很容易受到地缘政治的影响。难怪自1970年以来,油价在半年内波动超过30%的情形多达62次。
A picture of the new energy system is emerging. With bold action, renewable electricity such as solar and wind power could rise from 5% of supply today to 25% in 2035, and nearly 50% by 2050. Oil and coal use will drop, although cleaner natural gas will remain central. This architecture will ultimately bring huge benefits. Most important, decarbonising energy will avoid the chaos of unchecked climate change, including devastating droughts, famine, floods and mass dislocation. Once mature, it should be more politically stable, too, because supply will be diversified, geographically and technologically. Petrostates will have to attempt to reform themselves and, as their governments start to depend on taxing their own citizens, some will become more representative. Consuming countries, which once sought energy security by meddling in the politics of the oil producers, will instead look to sensible regulation of their own power industry. The 21st-century system should also be less economically volatile. Electricity prices will be determined not by a few big actors but by competition and gradual efficiency gains.
一幅能源新系统的图景正在徐徐展开。如果采取大胆行动,太阳能和风能等可再生能源可能会从目前占供应量的5%上升到2035年的25%,再到2050年的接近50%。石油和煤炭用量会下降,尽管相对更清洁的天然气仍将是主要能源。这种结构最终会带来巨大好处。最重要的是,能源脱碳会避免肆虐的气候变化带来的混乱,包括毁灭性的干旱、饥荒、洪水以及大规模迁移等。这个系统一旦发展成熟,政治上的稳定性应该也会增强,因为能源供应在地理和技术上都会变得多元化。产油国将不得不尝试自我改革,而随着其政府开始依赖对本国公民征税,它们中的一些将向代议制转型。曾经通过干涉产油国内政来谋求能源安全的石油消费国则将转而寻求明智地监管本国能源产业。21世纪的系统在经济上应该也会更趋于稳定。电价将不再由几个垄断者说了算,而是由竞争和逐步的效率提升所决定。
Yet even as a better energy system emerges, the threat of a poorly managed transition looms. Two risks stand out. Autocratic China could temporarily gain clout over the global power system because of its dominance in making key components and developing new technologies. Today Chinese firms produce 72% of the world’s solar modules, 69% of its lithium-ion batteries and 45% of its wind turbines. They also control much of the refining of minerals critical to clean energy, such as cobalt and lithium. Instead of a petrostate, the People’s Republic may become an “electrostate”. In the past six months it has announced investments in electric-car infrastructure and transmission, tested a nuclear plant in Pakistan and considered stockpiling cobalt.
不过,在一个更好的能源系统初露头角的同时,转型管理不善的威胁也在迫近。两个风险凸显出来。专制中国在关键零部件制造和新技术开发方面占据主导,因此可能会暂时赢得对全球能源系统的影响力。如今,中国企业生产了世界上72%的太阳能组件、69%的锂离子电池和45%的风力涡轮机。它们还控制着提炼钴和锂等对清洁能源至关重要的矿物的大部分。中国可能变成一个“电能国家”,而不是石油国家。过去六个月里,中国宣布了对电动汽车基础设施和输电设备的投资,测试了巴基斯坦的一座核电站,并考虑收储钴。
China’s leverage depends on how fast other economies move. Europe is home to giant developers of wind and solar farms—Orsted, Enel and Iberdrola are building such projects around the world. European firms are leading the race to cut their own emissions, too. America’s trajectory has been affected by the rise of shale oil and gas, which has made it the world’s largest oil producer, and by Republican resistance to decarbonisation measures. If America were to act on climate change—with, say, a carbon tax and new infrastructure—its capital markets, national energy laboratories and universities would make it a formidable green power.
中国的影响力取决于其他经济体的行动速度。欧洲是风能和太阳能发电场开发巨头的大本营——丹麦的沃旭能源(Orsted)、意大利国家电力公司(Enel)和西班牙的伊维尔德罗拉公司(Iberdrola)正在世界各地建设此类项目。欧洲企业在减排方面也走在前头。美国的进程受到影响,原因是使美国成为全球最大产油国的页岩油气的兴起,以及共和党对脱碳措施的抵制。如果美国对气候变化采取行动,比如征收碳排放税、建设新的基础设施等,那么它的资本市场、国家能源实验室和大学将会使它成为强大的绿色能源国。
The other big risk is the transition of petrostates, which account for 8% of world GDP and nearly 900m citizens. As oil demand dwindles, they will face a vicious fight for market share which will be won by the countries with the cheapest and cleanest crude. Even as they grapple with the growing urgency of economic and political reform, the public resources to pay for it may dwindle. This year Saudi Arabia’s government revenue fell by 49% in the second quarter. A perilous few decades lie ahead.
另一个巨大风险是产油国的转型,它们占世界GDP总量的8%,拥有近九亿人口。随着石油需求减少,它们将面临一场争夺市场份额的恶战,而那些原油成本最低、最清洁的国家将会赢得这场战争。就在产油国奋力应对日益紧迫的经济和政治改革之时,支持改革的公共资源可能会减少。今年沙特政府第二季度收入减少了49%。未来几十年将会危机四伏。
Faced with these dangers, the temptation will be to ease the adjustment, by taking the transition more slowly. However, that would bring about a different, even more destabilising set of climate-related consequences. Instead, the investments being contemplated fall drastically short of what is needed to keep temperatures within 2°C of pre-industrial levels, let alone the 1.5°C required to limit the environmental, economic and political turmoil of climate change. For example, annual investment in wind and solar capacity needs to be about $750bn, triple recent levels. And if the shift towards fossil-fuel-free renewable energy accelerates, as it must, it will cause even more geopolitical turbulence. The move to a new energy order is vital, but it will be messy.
面对这些危险,人们很容易会放慢转型的速度,以降低调整的难度。然而,这将引发另一系列气候相关后果,带来甚至更大的动荡。而目前计划的投资远远低于将温升控制在比工业化前水平高出2℃以内所需的水平,更别提将温升控制在1.5℃以内以求限制气候变化带来的环境、经济和政治动荡了。例如,每年在风能和太阳能发电产能上的投资需要达到7500亿美元左右,是近期水平的三倍。而如果加速向非化石燃料的可再生能源转变——这也是必然之举——将导致更多的地缘政治动荡。向能源新秩序的转变至关重要,但也很棘手。

三、经济学人杂志双语文章原文

Power in the 21st century 21
Efforts to rein in climate change will up-end the geopolitics of energy
OIL FUELLED the 20th centuryits cars, its wars, its economy and its geopolitics. Now the world is in the midst of an energy shock that is speeding up the shift to a new order. As covid-19 struck the global economy earlier this year, demand for oil dropped by more than a fifth and prices collapsed. Since then there has been a jittery recovery, but a return to the old world is unlikely. Fossil-fuel producers are being forced to confront their vulnerabilities. ExxonMobil has been ejected from the Dow Jones Industrial Average, having been a member since 1928. Petrostates such as Saudi Arabia need an oil price of $70-80 a barrel to balance their budgets. Today it is scraping along at just $40.
There have been oil slumps before, but this one is different. As the public, governments and investors wake up to climate change, the clean-energy industry is gaining momentum. Capital markets have shifted: clean-power stocks are up by 45% this year. With interest rates near zero, politicians are backing green-infrastructure plans. Americas Democratic presidential contender, Joe Biden, wants to spend $2trn decarbonising Americas economy. The European Union has earmarked 30% of its $880bn covid-19 recovery plan for climate measures, and its president, Ursula von der Leyen, used her state-of-the-union address last month to confirm that she wants the EU to cut greenhouse-gas emissions by 55% over 1990 levels in the next decade.
The 21st-century energy system promises to be better than the oil agebetter for human health, more politically stable and less economically volatile. The shift involves big risks. If disorderly, it could add to political and economic instability in petrostates and concentrate control of the green-supply chain in China. Even more dangerous, it could happen too slowly.
Today fossil fuels are the ultimate source of 85% of energy. But this system is dirty. Energy accounts for two-thirds of greenhouse-gas emissions; the pollution from burning fossil fuels kills over 4m people a year, mostly in the emerging worlds mega-cities. Oil has also created political instability. For decades petrostates such as Venezuela and Saudi Arabia, with little incentive to develop their economies, have been mired in the politics of handouts and cronyism. In an effort to ensure secure supplies, the worlds big powers have vied to influence these states, not least in the Middle East, where America has roughly 60,000 troops. Fossil fuels cause economic volatility, too. Oil markets are buffeted by an erratic cartel. Concentration of the worlds oil reserves makes supply vulnerable to geopolitical shocks. Little wonder that the price has swung by over 30% in a sixth-month period 62 times since 1970.
A picture of the new energy system is emerging. With bold action, renewable electricity such as solar and wind power could rise from 5% of supply today to 25% in 2035, and nearly 50% by 2050. Oil and coal use will drop, although cleaner natural gas will remain central. This architecture will ultimately bring huge benefits. Most important, decarbonising energy will avoid the chaos of unchecked climate change, including devastating droughts, famine, floods and mass dislocation. Once mature, it should be more politically stable, too, because supply will be diversified, geographically and technologically. Petrostates will have to attempt to reform themselves and, as their governments start to depend on taxing their own citizens, some will become more representative. Consuming countries, which once sought energy security by meddling in the politics of the oil producers, will instead look to sensible regulation of their own power industry. The 21st-century system should also be less economically volatile. Electricity prices will be determined not by a few big actors but by competition and gradual efficiency gains.
Yet even as a better energy system emerges, the threat of a poorly managed transition looms. Two risks stand out. Autocratic China could temporarily gain clout over the global power system because of its dominance in making key components and developing new technologies. Today Chinese firms produce 72% of the worlds solar modules, 69% of its lithium-ion batteries and 45% of its wind turbines. They also control much of the refining of minerals critical to clean energy, such as cobalt and lithium. Instead of a petrostate, the Peoples Republic may become an electrostate. In the past six months it has announced investments in electric-car infrastructure and transmission, tested a nuclear plant in Pakistan and considered stockpiling cobalt.
Chinas leverage depends on how fast other economies move. Europe is home to giant developers of wind and solar farmsOrsted, Enel and Iberdrola are building such projects around the world. European firms are leading the race to cut their own emissions, too. Americas trajectory has been affected by the rise of shale oil and gas, which has made it the worlds largest oil producer, and by Republican resistance to decarbonisation measures. If America were to act on climate changewith, say, a carbon tax and new infrastructureits capital markets, national energy laboratories and universities would make it a formidable green power.
The other big risk is the transition of petrostates, which account for 8% of world GDP and nearly 900m citizens. As oil demand dwindles, they will face a vicious fight for market share which will be won by the countries with the cheapest and cleanest crude. Even as they grapple with the growing urgency of economic and political reform, the public resources to pay for it may dwindle. This year Saudi Arabias government revenue fell by 49% in the second quarter. A perilous few decades lie ahead.
Faced with these dangers, the temptation will be to ease the adjustment, by taking the transition more slowly. However, that would bring about a different, even more destabilising set of climate-related consequences. Instead, the investments being contemplated fall drastically short of what is needed to keep temperatures within 2C of pre-industrial levels, let alone the 1.5C required to limit the environmental, economic and political turmoil of climate change. For example, annual investment in wind and solar capacity needs to be about $750bn, triple recent levels. And if the shift towards fossil-fuel-free renewable energy accelerates, as it must, it will cause even more geopolitical turbulence. The move to a new energy order is vital, but it will be messy.

四、经济学人杂志双语文章译文

21世纪的能源势力
为遏制气候变化所做的努力将颠覆能源的地缘政治格局 
石油推动了20世纪,包括这个时期的汽车、战争、经济和地缘政治。如今,世界正处于一场能源冲击中,向新秩序的转变也由此加速。今年年初,新冠肺炎冲击全球经济,石油需求下降超过五分之一,油价暴跌。自那之后,油价震荡回升,但不太可能恢复到过去的水平。化石燃料生产商正被迫正视自己的脆弱。自1928年以来一直都是道琼斯工业指数成分股的埃克森美孚已被移出了该指数。沙特阿拉伯等产油国需要油价维持在每桶70至80美元才能平衡预算。目前油价在40美元的低位徘徊。
油价过去也暴跌过,但这次不同于以往。随着公众、政府和投资者意识到气候变化的重要性,清洁能源产业势头正猛。资本市场已经发生了转变:今年,清洁能源股票上涨了45%。在利率接近于零之时,政客们开始支持绿色基建计划。美国民主党总统候选人拜登想花费2万亿美元让美国经济脱碳。欧盟已经在8800亿美元的新冠复苏计划中拨出30%的资金用于应对气候变化。欧盟委员会主席乌尔苏拉·冯德莱恩(   )上月在发表“盟情咨文”时再度确认,她希望欧盟在接下来的10年里将温室气体排放量相比1990年减少55%。
本世纪的能源系统有望好于石油时代——更有益于人类健康,在政治上更稳定,在经济上也能少一些动荡。这场转型风险巨大。如果无序进行,它可能加剧产油国政治和经济上的不稳定,并把绿色供应链的控制权集中到中国。更危险的是,转型的步伐可能太慢。
目前,化石燃料是85%的能源的根本来源。但这一系统污染严重。世界三分之二的温室气体排放源自使用能源;燃烧化石燃料带来的污染每年导致400多万人死亡,大部分是在新兴国家的大城市。石油还造成政治不稳定。几十年来,缺乏动力发展经济的委内瑞拉和沙特阿拉伯等产油国一直深陷补贴和裙带政治的泥潭。为确保供应稳定,世界各大国竞相对这些产油国施加影响,尤其是在有约六万美军驻守的中东。化石燃料也给经济带来不稳定。捉摸不定的卡特尔组织欧佩克不断冲击着石油市场。全球石油储量的集中让供给很容易受到地缘政治的影响。难怪自1970年以来,油价在半年内波动超过30%的情形多达62次。
一幅能源新系统的图景正在徐徐展开。如果采取大胆行动,太阳能和风能等可再生能源可能会从目前占供应量的5%上升到2035年的25%,再到2050年的接近50%。石油和煤炭用量会下降,尽管相对更清洁的天然气仍将是主要能源。这种结构最终会带来巨大好处。最重要的是,能源脱碳会避免肆虐的气候变化带来的混乱,包括毁灭性的干旱、饥荒、洪水以及大规模迁移等。这个系统一旦发展成熟,政治上的稳定性应该也会增强,因为能源供应在地理和技术上都会变得多元化。产油国将不得不尝试自我改革,而随着其政府开始依赖对本国公民征税,它们中的一些将向代议制转型。曾经通过干涉产油国内政来谋求能源安全的石油消费国则将转而寻求明智地监管本国能源产业。21世纪的系统在经济上应该也会更趋于稳定。电价将不再由几个垄断者说了算,而是由竞争和逐步的效率提升所决定。
不过,在一个更好的能源系统初露头角的同时,转型管理不善的威胁也在迫近。两个风险凸显出来。专制中国在关键零部件制造和新技术开发方面占据主导,因此可能会暂时赢得对全球能源系统的影响力。如今,中国企业生产了世界上72%的太阳能组件、69%的锂离子电池和45%的风力涡轮机。它们还控制着提炼钴和锂等对清洁能源至关重要的矿物的大部分。中国可能变成一个“电能国家”,而不是石油国家。过去六个月里,中国宣布了对电动汽车基础设施和输电设备的投资,测试了巴基斯坦的一座核电站,并考虑收储钴。
中国的影响力取决于其他经济体的行动速度。欧洲是风能和太阳能发电场开发巨头的大本营——丹麦的沃旭能源、意大利国家电力公司和西班牙的伊维尔德罗拉公司正在世界各地建设此类项目。欧洲企业在减排方面也走在前头。美国的进程受到影响,原因是使美国成为全球最大产油国的页岩油气的兴起,以及共和党对脱碳措施的抵制。如果美国对气候变化采取行动,比如征收碳排放税、建设新的基础设施等,那么它的资本市场、国家能源实验室和大学将会使它成为强大的绿色能源国。
另一个巨大风险是产油国的转型,它们占世界总量的8%,拥有近九亿人口。随着石油需求减少,它们将面临一场争夺市场份额的恶战,而那些原油成本最低、最清洁的国家将会赢得这场战争。就在产油国奋力应对日益紧迫的经济和政治改革之时,支持改革的公共资源可能会减少。今年沙特政府第二季度收入减少了49%。未来几十年将会危机四伏。
面对这些危险,人们很容易会放慢转型的速度,以降低调整的难度。然而,这将引发另一系列气候相关后果,带来甚至更大的动荡。而目前计划的投资远远低于将温升控制在比工业化前水平高出2℃以内所需的水平,更别提将温升控制在1.5℃以内以求限制气候变化带来的环境、经济和政治动荡了。例如,每年在风能和太阳能发电产能上的投资需要达到7500亿美元左右,是近期水平的三倍。而如果加速向非化石燃料的可再生能源转变——这也是必然之举——将导致更多的地缘政治动荡。向能源新秩序的转变至关重要,但也很棘手。

五、经济学人杂志双语文章单词

rein

ren

n.驾驭(法).统治手段.控制(权).缰绳.;vt.勒缰绳使(马)停步.驾驭.严格控制.;vi.勒住马.;

geopolitics

ˌdʒi:oʊˈpɑ:lətɪks

n.地缘政治学.;

midst

mɪdst, mɪtst

n.中间 prep.在...中间

jittery

'dʒɪtərɪ

adj.神经过敏的,战战兢兢的,抖动着

vulnerability

ˌvʌlnərə'bɪlətɪ

n.弱点,攻击.易伤性.致命性.脆弱性.;

jones

dʒonz

n.<美><俚>瘾,毒瘾,固着型依恋.;

saudi

'saʊdɪ

adj.沙特阿拉伯国家的,沙特阿拉伯人的.;n.沙特阿拉伯,沙特阿拉伯人.;

arabia

əˈrebiə

n.阿拉伯半岛.;

slump

slʌmp

vi.大幅度下降,暴跌.沉重或突然地落下[倒下].;n.(物价等的)暴跌.<美>(个人、球队等的)低潮状态.(销售量、价格、价值等的)骤降.(精神等的)消沉,萎靡.;

investor

ɪnˈvɛstɚ

n.投资者.出资者.包围者,围攻者.;

momentum

moʊˈmentəm

n.[物]动量.势头.动力.要素,契机.;

infrastructure

ˈɪnfrəˌstrʌktʃɚ

n.基础设施.基础建设.;

presidential

ˌprɛzɪˈdɛnʃəl

adj.总统[总裁,议长,董事长,校长等](职务)的.统辖的,支配的,监督的,指挥的.总统制的.有总统气派的.;

earmark

ˈɪrmɑ:rk

n.(牲畜耳朵上打着的)耳号v.打上耳号,加上记号,指定(款项等的)用途

greenhouse

ˈɡrinˌhaʊs

n.温室,花房.[军]<俚>周围有玻璃的座舱,轰炸员舱.;

volatile

ˈvɑ:lətl

adj.飞行的,挥发性的,可变的,不稳定的,轻快的,爆炸性的n.[现罕]有翅的动物,挥发物

mega

'meɡə

adj.宏大的.精彩的.;

venezuela

ˌvenə'zweɪlə

n.委内瑞拉(南美洲北部国家).;

incentive

ɪnˈsɛntɪv

n.动机.刺激.诱因.鼓励.;adj.刺激性的.鼓励性质的.;

mire

maɪr

n.<尤文>泥潭.;vt.& vi.深陷.;

cronyism

ˈkroʊniɪzəm

n.任用亲信.;

volatility

ˌvɒlə'tɪlətɪ

n.挥发性.挥发度.反复无常.;

erratic

ɪˈrætɪk

adj.飘忽不定的.行为古怪,反复无常.(运动或行为)不规则的.;n.古怪的人.[地]漂砾.;

cartel

kɑ:rˈtel

n.企业联合,交战国间交换俘虏的协议

geopolitical

ˌdʒi:oʊpə'lɪtɪkl

adj.地理政治学的.;

swung

swʌŋ

v.(使)摇摆( swing的过去式和过去分词 ).(使)摇荡.(使)旋转.(使)突然转向.;

renewable

rɪˈnu:

adj.可继续的,可续订的.可更新的.可再生的.可翻新的.;

unchecked

ʌnˈtʃɛkt

adj.未受制止的,未经检查的,未加抑制的,未选中的

devastating

 

adj.毁灭性的,灾难性的.惊人的,可怕的.迷人的.强大的.;v.彻底破坏( devastate的现在分词).摧毁.毁灭.;

dislocation

ˌdɪsloˈkeʃən

n.[医]脱位,脱臼.[物]位错.混乱,紊乱.[地]断层.;

diversified

daɪˈvə:səˌfaɪd

adj.多样化的,多种经营的.;v.使多样化,多样化( diversify的过去式和过去分词 ).进入新的商业领域.;

technologically

ˌteknə'lɒdʒɪklɪ

adv.技术上地.;

meddle

ˈmɛdl:

v.干涉,插手.弄,摸弄,用手玩弄.参与,发生关系.;

loom

lum

n.织布机,织布法.若隐若现的景象.桨柄.[航]翼肋腹部.;vi.& link-v.朦胧出现.;vi.隐约地出现.赫然耸现.迫在眉睫.;

autocratic

ˌɔ:tə'krætɪk

adj.独裁的.专制的.;

temporarily

tempəˈrerɪlɪ

adv.暂时地.临时地.;

clout

klaʊt

n.敲打,猛打.(尤指政治上的)影响.破布.;vt.(尤指用手)猛击,重打.;

dominance

ˈdɑmənəns

n.优势.支配.统治.优性.;

lithium

ˈlɪθiəm

n.<化>锂.;

cobalt

ˈkoʊbɔ:lt

n.[化]钴(符号为Co),钴类颜料,由钴制的深蓝色

pakistan

 

abbr.Punjab. Afghan Border states. Kashmir. Sind.;

stockpile

ˈstɑ:kpaɪl

n.(原料,食品等的)储备,准备急用的备用原料或物资,贮存.资源,富源,矿藏量.(为战争准备的)核武器.;vt.大量贮备.;

leverage

ˈli:vərɪdʒ

n.杠杆作用.优势,力量.影响力.举债经营.;v.举债经营.借贷收购.;

trajectory

trəˈdʒɛktəri

n.[物](射线的) 轨道,弹道,轨线

shale

ʃel

n.[矿]页岩.泥板岩.;

republican

rɪˈpʌblɪkən

adj.共和国的.共和政体的.共和主义的.<美>共和党员.;n.拥护共和政体者,共和主义者.<美>共和党的.;

dwindle

ˈdwɪndl

vi.减少,变小,缩小.衰落,变坏,退化.;

grapple

ˈɡræpəl

v.格斗

urgency

ˈə:dʒənsi

n.紧急,紧急的事,强求,催促,坚持

perilous

ˈpɛrələs

adj.危险的,冒险的.;

contemplate

ˈkɑ:ntəmpleɪt

vt.注视,凝视.盘算,计议.周密考虑.;vi.沉思,深思熟虑.;

drastically

ˈdræstɪkl:ɪ

adv.大大地,彻底地.激烈地.;

turmoil

ˈtɜ:rmɔɪl

n.混乱.焦虑.;

triple

ˈtrɪpəl

adj.三倍的,三方的,三部分的.;vt.& vi.(使)增至三倍.;n.三倍的数[量].三个一组.[棒]三垒安打.;

turbulence

ˈtɜ:rbjələns

n.骚动,骚乱.[物]湍流.(海洋、天气等的)狂暴.动荡.;